**2024-04-18**| Classroom Aid - Michelson Morley experiment xx

David Butler
Classroom Aid - Michelson Morley experiment xx

updated

**2023-06-07**| Text https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/06/Gravitational-Lensing-1.pdf

Credits https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Credits-and-Research.pdf

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover gravitational lensing. First, we illustrate how the light is bent, followed by some Einstein Ring examples. We then cover the lens itself: how it magnifies; how it distorts; and how images are mapped back to the source celestial object. We also cover critical curves that can magnify an object by thousands of times. We use Abell 68 and MACS 1206 as examples. We cover flickering quasars and how they can be used to calculate the Hubble constant. We follow that with multiple Type 1a supernovae image timings that can also be used to calculate the Hubble constant. We use the supernova Refsdal with its Einstein Cross as an example. We then cover lensing galaxies like Hamilton’s Object, Starburst Arc and Abell 1689-zD1. We finish with lensing stars namely Icarus and Earendel.

Music

@00:00 Rachmaninoff - Symphony No. 2 Adagio - Sofia Philharmonic Orchestra; from the album “Sergie Rachmaninoff Symphony No. 2”, 2011

@14:37 Rachmaninoff - Piano Concerto No 2 in C minor – from the album “The Most Relaxing Classical Music Ever”, 1993

@23:30 Rachmaninoff - Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini - Variation 18 - from the album “The Most Relaxing Classical Music Ever”, 1997

**2023-06-07**| Text https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/06/Gravitational-Lensing-1.pdf

Credits https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Credits-and-Research.pdf

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover gravitational lensing. First, we illustrate how the light is bent, followed by some Einstein Ring examples. We then cover the lens itself: how it magnifies; how it distorts; and how images are mapped back to the source celestial object. We also cover critical curves that can magnify an object by thousands of times. We use Abell 68 and MACS 1206 as examples. We cover flickering quasars and how they can be used to calculate the Hubble constant. We follow that with multiple Type 1a supernovae image timings that can also be used to calculate the Hubble constant. We use the supernova Refsdal with its Einstein Cross as an example. We then cover lensing galaxies like Hamilton’s Object, Starburst Arc and Abell 1689-zD1. We finish with lensing stars namely Icarus and Earendel.

Music

@00:00 Rachmaninoff - Symphony No. 2 Adagio - Sofia Philharmonic Orchestra; from the album “Sergie Rachmaninoff Symphony No. 2”, 2011

@14:37 Rachmaninoff - Piano Concerto No 2 in C minor – from the album “The Most Relaxing Classical Music Ever”, 1993

@23:30 Rachmaninoff - Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini - Variation 18 - from the album “The Most Relaxing Classical Music Ever”, 1997

**2023-06-07**| Text https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/06/Gravitational-Lensing-1.pdf

Credits https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Credits-and-Research.pdf

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover gravitational lensing. First, we illustrate how the light is bent, followed by some Einstein Ring examples. We then cover the lens itself: how it magnifies; how it distorts; and how images are mapped back to the source celestial object. We also cover critical curves that can magnify an object by thousands of times. We use Abell 68 and MACS 1206 as examples. We cover flickering quasars and how they can be used to calculate the Hubble constant. We follow that with multiple Type 1a supernovae image timings that can also be used to calculate the Hubble constant. We use the supernova Refsdal with its Einstein Cross as an example. We then cover lensing galaxies like Hamilton’s Object, Starburst Arc and Abell 1689-zD1. We finish with lensing stars namely Icarus and Earendel.

Music

@00:00 Rachmaninoff - Symphony No. 2 Adagio - Sofia Philharmonic Orchestra; from the album “Sergie Rachmaninoff Symphony No. 2”, 2011

@14:37 Rachmaninoff - Piano Concerto No 2 in C minor – from the album “The Most Relaxing Classical Music Ever”, 1993

@23:30 Rachmaninoff - Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini - Variation 18 - from the album “The Most Relaxing Classical Music Ever”, 1997

**2023-06-06**| Text https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/06/Gravitational-Lensing.pdf

Credits https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Credits-and-Research.pdf

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover gravitational lensing. First, we illustrate how the light is bent, followed by some Einstein Ring examples. We then cover the lens itself: how it magnifies; how it distorts; and how images are mapped back to the source celestial object. We also cover critical curves that can magnify an object by thousands of times. We use Abell 68 and MACS 1206 as examples. We cover flickering quasars and how they can be used to calculate the Hubble constant. We follow that with multiple Type 1a supernovae image timings that can also be used to calculate the Hubble constant. We use the supernova Refsdal with its Einstein Cross as an example. We then cover lensing galaxies like Hamilton’s Object, Starburst Arc and Abell 1689-zD1. We finish with lensing stars namely Icarus and Earendel.

**2023-06-06**| Text https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/06/Gravitational-Lensing.pdf

Credits https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Credits-and-Research.pdf

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover gravitational lensing. First, we illustrate how the light is bent, followed by some Einstein Ring examples. We then cover the lens itself: how it magnifies; how it distorts; and how images are mapped back to the source celestial object. We also cover critical curves that can magnify an object by thousands of times. We use Abell 68 and MACS 1206 as examples. We cover flickering quasars and how they can be used to calculate the Hubble constant. We follow that with multiple Type 1a supernovae image timings that can also be used to calculate the Hubble constant. We use the supernova Refsdal with its Einstein Cross as an example. We then cover lensing galaxies like Hamilton’s Object, Starburst Arc and Abell 1689-zD1. We finish with lensing stars namely Icarus and Earendel.

**2023-06-02**| Text https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/06/Gravitational-Lensing.pdf

Credits https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Credits-and-Research.pdf

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover gravitational lensing. First, we illustrate how the light is bent, followed by some Einstein Ring examples. We then cover the lens itself: how it magnifies; how it distorts; and how images are mapped back to the source celestial object. We also cover critical curves that can magnify an object by thousands of times. We use Abell 68 and MACS 1206 as examples. We cover flickering quasars and how they can be used to calculate the Hubble constant. We follow that with multiple Type 1a supernovae image timings that can also be used to calculate the Hubble constant. We use the supernova Refsdal with its Einstein Cross as an example. We then cover lensing galaxies like Hamilton’s Object, Starburst Arc and Abell 1689-zD1. We finish with lensing stars namely Icarus and Earendel.

**2023-06-02**| Text https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/06/Gravitational-Lensing.pdf

Credits https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Credits-and-Research.pdf

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover gravitational lensing. First, we illustrate how the light is bent, followed by some Einstein Ring examples. We then cover the lens itself: how it magnifies; how it distorts; and how images are mapped back to the source celestial object. We also cover critical curves that can magnify an object by thousands of times. We use Abell 68 and MACS 1206 as examples. We cover flickering quasars and how they can be used to calculate the Hubble constant. We follow that with multiple Type 1a supernovae image timings that can also be used to calculate the Hubble constant. We use the supernova Refsdal with its Einstein Cross as an example. We then cover lensing galaxies like Hamilton’s Object, Starburst Arc and Abell 1689-zD1. We finish with lensing stars namely Icarus and Earendel.

**2023-06-02**| Text https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/06/Gravitational-Lensing.pdf

Credits https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Credits-and-Research.pdf

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover gravitational lensing. First, we illustrate how the light is bent, followed by some Einstein Ring examples. We then cover the lens itself: how it magnifies; how it distorts; and how images are mapped back to the source celestial object. We also cover critical curves that can magnify an object by thousands of times. We use Abell 68 and MACS 1206 as examples. We cover flickering quasars and how they can be used to calculate the Hubble constant. We follow that with multiple Type 1a supernovae image timings that can also be used to calculate the Hubble constant. We use the supernova Refsdal with its Einstein Cross as an example. We then cover lensing galaxies like Hamilton’s Object, Starburst Arc and Abell 1689-zD1. We finish with lensing stars namely Icarus and Earendel.

**2023-06-02**| Text https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/06/Gravitational-Lensing.pdf

Credits https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Credits-and-Research.pdf

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover gravitational lensing. First, we illustrate how the light is bent, followed by some Einstein Ring examples. We then cover the lens itself: how it magnifies; how it distorts; and how images are mapped back to the source celestial object. We also cover critical curves that can magnify an object by thousands of times. We use Abell 68 and MACS 1206 as examples. We cover flickering quasars and how they can be used to calculate the Hubble constant. We follow that with multiple Type 1a supernovae image timings that can also be used to calculate the Hubble constant. We use the supernova Refsdal with its Einstein Cross as an example. We then cover lensing galaxies like Hamilton’s Object, Starburst Arc and Abell 1689-zD1. We finish with lensing stars namely Icarus and Earendel.

**2023-04-23**| https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/04/General-Relativeity-II-Tests.pdf

Credits http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Credits-and-Research.pdf

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover the effects of general relativity and how they differ from what Newton’s gravity predicts. Our first effect is the orbit of Mercury that precesses more than Newtonian gravity predicts. To understand the non-Euclidian space that Mercury orbits in, we introduce the Schwarzschild metric and compare it to the Minkowski metric for flat space-time. We illustrate the positive curvature around the Sun using concentric circles with shrinking circumferences. We then show how this slight difference in curvature produces additional movement in the precessing perihelion of Mercury’s orbit that exactly fits the measured number. Our next effect is the bending of light. We cover Arthur Eddington’s famous measurement during a total eclipse of the Sun and show how the amount of starlight bending matched Einstein’s calculations better than Newton’s. We extend this bending effect to show how Einstein Rings and gravitational lensing work. And we show how this effect tips over light cones and changes world-lines. Our third effect is gravitational time dilation. We show how it works and cover how our GPS uses it. We also cover the Pound-Rebka experiment used the Mossbauer Effect to showed how this time dilation impacts gravitational redshift. We also illustrate how this effect resolves the Twin Paradox we introduced in the Special Relativity segment.

Music

Music

@01:17 Mozart - Flute Concerto No. 2 in D Major: Kurt Berger, Vienna Mozart Ens; from the album “50 Must-Have Adagios Masterpieces” 2013

@12:03 Grieg - Holberg Suite, Sarabande (Andante): Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra; from the album “For the Hopeless Romantic” 2005

@19:47 Korsakov - Capriccio Espagnol: Royal Philharmonic Orchestra; from the album “Rimsky-Korsakov: Scheherazade” 2009

**2023-04-21**| https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/04/General-Relativeity-II-Tests.pdf

Credits http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Credits-and-Research.pdf

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover the effects of general relativity and how they differ from what Newton’s gravity predicts. Our first effect is the orbit of Mercury that precesses more than Newtonian gravity predicts. To understand the non-Euclidian space that Mercury orbits in, we introduce the Schwarzschild metric and compare it to the Minkowski metric for flat space-time. We illustrate the positive curvature around the Sun using concentric circles with shrinking circumferences. We then show how this slight difference in curvature produces additional movement in the precessing perihelion of Mercury’s orbit that exactly fits the measured number. Our next effect is the bending of light. We cover Arthur Eddington’s famous measurement during a total eclipse of the Sun and show how the amount of starlight bending matched Einstein’s calculations better than Newton’s. We extend this bending effect to show how Einstein Rings and gravitational lensing work. And we show how this effect tips over light cones and changes world-lines. Our third effect is gravitational time dilation. We show how it works and cover how our GPS uses it. We also cover the Pound-Rebka experiment used the Mossbauer Effect to showed how this time dilation impacts gravitational redshift. We also illustrate how this effect resolves the Twin Paradox we introduced in the Special Relativity segment.

Music

Music

@01:17 Mozart - Flute Concerto No. 2 in D Major: Kurt Berger, Vienna Mozart Ens; from the album “50 Must-Have Adagios Masterpieces” 2013

@12:03 Grieg - Holberg Suite, Sarabande (Andante): Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra; from the album “For the Hopeless Romantic” 2005

@19:47 Korsakov - Capriccio Espagnol: Royal Philharmonic Orchestra; from the album “Rimsky-Korsakov: Scheherazade” 2009

**2023-04-21**| https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/04/General-Relativeity-II-Tests.pdf

Credits http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Credits-and-Research.pdf

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover the effects of general relativity and how they differ from what Newton’s gravity predicts. Our first effect is the orbit of Mercury that precesses more than Newtonian gravity predicts. To understand the non-Euclidian space that Mercury orbits in, we introduce the Schwarzschild metric and compare it to the Minkowski metric for flat space-time. We illustrate the positive curvature around the Sun using concentric circles with shrinking circumferences. We then show how this slight difference in curvature produces additional movement in the precessing perihelion of Mercury’s orbit that exactly fits the measured number. Our next effect is the bending of light. We cover Arthur Eddington’s famous measurement during a total eclipse of the Sun and show how the amount of starlight bending matched Einstein’s calculations better than Newton’s. We extend this bending effect to show how Einstein Rings and gravitational lensing work. And we show how this effect tips over light cones and changes world-lines. Our third effect is gravitational time dilation. We show how it works and cover how our GPS uses it. We also cover the Pound-Rebka experiment used the Mossbauer Effect to showed how this time dilation impacts gravitational redshift. We also illustrate how this effect resolves the Twin Paradox we introduced in the Special Relativity segment.

Music

Music

@01:17 Mozart - Flute Concerto No. 2 in D Major: Kurt Berger, Vienna Mozart Ens; from the album “50 Must-Have Adagios Masterpieces” 2013

@12:03 Grieg - Holberg Suite, Sarabande (Andante): Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra; from the album “For the Hopeless Romantic” 2005

@19:47 Korsakov - Capriccio Espagnol: Royal Philharmonic Orchestra; from the album “Rimsky-Korsakov: Scheherazade” 2009

**2023-04-21**| https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/04/General-Relativeity-II-Tests.pdf

Credits http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Credits-and-Research.pdf

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover the effects of general relativity and how they differ from what Newton’s gravity predicts. Our first effect is the orbit of Mercury that precesses more than Newtonian gravity predicts. To understand the non-Euclidian space that Mercury orbits in, we introduce the Schwarzschild metric and compare it to the Minkowski metric for flat space-time. We illustrate the positive curvature around the Sun using concentric circles with shrinking circumferences. We then show how this slight difference in curvature produces additional movement in the precessing perihelion of Mercury’s orbit that exactly fits the measured number. Our next effect is the bending of light. We cover Arthur Eddington’s famous measurement during a total eclipse of the Sun and show how the amount of starlight bending matched Einstein’s calculations better than Newton’s. We extend this bending effect to show how Einstein Rings and gravitational lensing work. And we show how this effect tips over light cones and changes world-lines. Our third effect is gravitational time dilation. We show how it works and cover how our GPS uses it. We also cover the Pound-Rebka experiment used the Mossbauer Effect to showed how this time dilation impacts gravitational redshift. We also illustrate how this effect resolves the Twin Paradox we introduced in the Special Relativity segment.

Music

Music

@01:17 Mozart - Flute Concerto No. 2 in D Major: Kurt Berger, Vienna Mozart Ens; from the album “50 Must-Have Adagios Masterpieces” 2013

@12:03 Grieg - Holberg Suite, Sarabande (Andante): Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra; from the album “For the Hopeless Romantic” 2005

@19:47 Korsakov - Capriccio Espagnol: Royal Philharmonic Orchestra; from the album “Rimsky-Korsakov: Scheherazade” 2009

**2023-04-21**| 4:25 Error in the metric spacetime interval in polar coordinates. Should be sin(theta) instead of cos(theta).

text - https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/04/General-Relativeity-II-Tests-1.pdf

Credits - http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Credits-and-Research.pdf

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover the effects of general relativity and how they differ from what Newton’s gravity predicts. Our first effect is the orbit of Mercury that precesses more than Newtonian gravity predicts. To understand the non-Euclidian space that Mercury orbits in, we introduce the Schwarzschild metric and compare it to the Minkowski metric for flat space-time. We illustrate the positive curvature around the Sun using concentric circles with shrinking circumferences. We then show how this slight difference in curvature produces additional movement in the precessing perihelion of Mercury’s orbit that exactly fits the measured number. Our next effect is the bending of light. We cover Arthur Eddington’s famous measurement during a total eclipse of the Sun and show how the amount of starlight bending matched Einstein’s calculations better than Newton’s. We extend this bending effect to show how Einstein Rings and gravitational lensing work. And we show how this effect tips over light cones and changes world-lines. Our third effect is gravitational time dilation. We show how it works and cover how our GPS uses it. We also cover the Pound-Rebka experiment used the Mossbauer Effect to showed how this time dilation impacts gravitational redshift. We also illustrate how this effect resolves the Twin Paradox we introduced in the Special Relativity segment.

Music

@01:17 Mozart - Flute Concerto No. 2 in D Major: Kurt Berger, Vienna Mozart Ens; from the album “50 Must-Have Adagios Masterpieces” 2013

@12:03 Grieg - Holberg Suite, Sarabande (Andante): Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra; from the album “For the Hopeless Romantic” 2005

@19:47 Korsakov - Capriccio Espagnol: Royal Philharmonic Orchestra; from the album “Rimsky-Korsakov: Scheherazade” 2009

**2023-04-17**| https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/04/General-Relativeity-II-Tests.pdf

Credits http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Credits-and-Research.pdf

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover the effects of general relativity and how they differ from what Newton’s gravity predicts. Our first effect is the orbit of Mercury that precesses more than Newtonian gravity predicts. To understand the non-Euclidian space that Mercury orbits in, we introduce the Schwarzschild metric and compare it to the Minkowski metric for flat space-time. We illustrate the positive curvature around the Sun using concentric circles with shrinking circumferences. We then show how this slight difference in curvature produces additional movement in the precessing perihelion of Mercury’s orbit that exactly fits the measured number. Our next effect is the bending of light. We cover Arthur Eddington’s famous measurement during a total eclipse of the Sun and show how the amount of starlight bending matched Einstein’s calculations better than Newton’s. We extend this bending effect to show how Einstein Rings and gravitational lensing work. And we show how this effect tips over light cones and changes world-lines. Our third effect is gravitational time dilation. We show how it works and cover how our GPS uses it. We also cover the Pound-Rebka experiment used the Mossbauer Effect to showed how this time dilation impacts gravitational redshift. We also illustrate how this effect resolves the Twin Paradox we introduced in the Special Relativity segment.

**2023-04-16**| https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/04/General-Relativeity-II-Tests.pdf

Credits http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Credits-and-Research.pdf

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover the effects of general relativity and how they differ from what Newton’s gravity predicts. Our first effect is the orbit of Mercury that precesses more than Newtonian gravity predicts. To understand the non-Euclidian space that Mercury orbits in, we introduce the Schwarzschild metric and compare it to the Minkowski metric for flat space-time. We illustrate the positive curvature around the Sun using concentric circles with shrinking circumferences. We then show how this slight difference in curvature produces additional movement in the precessing perihelion of Mercury’s orbit that exactly fits the measured number. Our next effect is the bending of light. We cover Arthur Eddington’s famous measurement during a total eclipse of the Sun and show how the amount of starlight bending matched Einstein’s calculations better than Newton’s. We extend this bending effect to show how Einstein Rings and gravitational lensing work. And we show how this effect tips over light cones and changes world-lines. Our third effect is gravitational time dilation. We show how it works and cover how our GPS uses it. We also cover the Pound-Rebka experiment used the Mossbauer Effect to showed how this time dilation impacts gravitational redshift. We also illustrate how this effect resolves the Twin Paradox we introduced in the Special Relativity segment.

**2023-04-10**| Text http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/General-Relativity-II-Effects.pdf

Credits http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Credits-and-Research.pdf

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover the effects of general relativity and how they differ from what Newton’s gravity predicts. Our first effect is the orbit of Mercury that precesses more than Newtonian gravity predicts. To understand the non-Euclidian space that Mercury orbits in, we introduce the Schwarzschild metric and compare it to the Minkowski metric for flat space-time. We illustrate the positive curvature around the Sun using concentric circles with shrinking circumferences. We then show how this slight difference in curvature produces additional movement in the precessing perihelion of Mercury’s orbit that exactly fits the measured number. Our next effect is the bending of light. We cover Arthur Eddington’s famous measurement during a total eclipse of the Sun and show how the amount of starlight bending matched Einstein’s calculations better than Newton’s. We extend this bending effect to show how Einstein Rings and gravitational lensing work. And we show how this effect tips over light cones and changes world-lines. Our third effect is gravitational time dilation. We show how it works and cover how our GPS uses it. We also cover the Pound-Rebka experiment used the Mossbauer Effect to showed how this time dilation impacts gravitational redshift. We also illustrate how this effect resolves the Twin Paradox we introduced in the Special Relativity segment. Our final implication involves frame-dragging. To understand this effect, we introduce the Kerr Metric that covers rotating energy densities that literally drag space along with them. We use Gravity Probe B to illustrate how it works and how it is measured. We finish with an in depth look at the black hole Gargantua from the movie Interstellar.

**2023-04-10**| Text http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/General-Relativity-II-Effects.pdf

Credits http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Credits-and-Research.pdf

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover the effects of general relativity and how they differ from what Newton’s gravity predicts. Our first effect is the orbit of Mercury that precesses more than Newtonian gravity predicts. To understand the non-Euclidian space that Mercury orbits in, we introduce the Schwarzschild metric and compare it to the Minkowski metric for flat space-time. We illustrate the positive curvature around the Sun using concentric circles with shrinking circumferences. We then show how this slight difference in curvature produces additional movement in the precessing perihelion of Mercury’s orbit that exactly fits the measured number. Our next effect is the bending of light. We cover Arthur Eddington’s famous measurement during a total eclipse of the Sun and show how the amount of starlight bending matched Einstein’s calculations better than Newton’s. We extend this bending effect to show how Einstein Rings and gravitational lensing work. And we show how this effect tips over light cones and changes world-lines. Our third effect is gravitational time dilation. We show how it works and cover how our GPS uses it. We also cover the Pound-Rebka experiment used the Mossbauer Effect to showed how this time dilation impacts gravitational redshift. We also illustrate how this effect resolves the Twin Paradox we introduced in the Special Relativity segment. Our final implication involves frame-dragging. To understand this effect, we introduce the Kerr Metric that covers rotating energy densities that literally drag space along with them. We use Gravity Probe B to illustrate how it works and how it is measured. We finish with an in depth look at the black hole Gargantua from the movie Interstellar.

**2023-03-12**| Text http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/General-Relativity-II-Effects.pdf

Credits http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Credits-and-Research.pdf

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover the effects of general relativity and how they differ from what Newton’s gravity predicts. Our first effect is the orbit of Mercury that precesses more than Newtonian gravity predicts. To understand the non-Euclidian space that Mercury orbits in, we introduce the Schwarzschild metric and compare it to the Minkowski metric for flat space-time. We illustrate the positive curvature around the Sun using concentric circles with shrinking circumferences. We then show how this slight difference in curvature produces additional movement in the precessing perihelion of Mercury’s orbit that exactly fits the measured number. Our next effect is the bending of light. We cover Arthur Eddington’s famous measurement during a total eclipse of the Sun and show how the amount of starlight bending matched Einstein’s calculations better than Newton’s. We extend this bending effect to show how Einstein Rings and gravitational lensing work. And we show how this effect tips over light cones and changes world-lines. Our third effect is gravitational time dilation. We show how it works and cover how our GPS uses it. We also cover the Pound-Rebka experiment used the Mossbauer Effect to showed how this time dilation impacts gravitational redshift. We also illustrate how this effect resolves the Twin Paradox we introduced in the Special Relativity segment. Our final implication involves frame-dragging. To understand this effect, we introduce the Kerr Metric that covers rotating energy densities that literally drag space along with them. We use Gravity Probe B to illustrate how it works and how it is measured. We finish with an in depth look at the black hole Gargantua from the movie Interstellar.

**2023-02-10**| Text - https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/02/General-Relativeity-I-Geometry.pdf

Music free version - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_t8TpMJm-RU&list=PLpH1IDQEoE8S1whySeAhRceFtdpU7kK6U

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover the geometry of general relativity. We start with the Elevator Thought Experiment, and show how it represents a gravitational field and how it predicts the bending of light. This sets the stage for the Equivalence Principle. This leads to the reconciliation of Newton’s two definitions for mass. Which, in turn, leads to the idea that the existence of a mass bends space. To understand the bending of space, we cover the basics of Euclidian and non-Euclidian Riemann geometry. We include spherical and hyperbolic geometries along with the nature of their respective geodesics. We actually measure geodesic deviation above the Earth. For a fuller understanding, we cover the definition of metrics and curvature in terms of tensors. With the general Riemannian Curvature Tensor in hand, we find the subsets that reflect the behavior of space within a volume. We then cover how Einstein mapped this geometry to space-time to produce the Einstein Curvature Tensor. And finally, we describe the Energy-Momentum tensor that identifies the nature of a volume of matter-energy, which is the source of the space-time curvature. Setting these equal to each other with an appropriate conversion factor gives us Einstein’s general relativity field equations.

**2023-02-10**| Text - https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/02/General-Relativeity-I-Geometry.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover the geometry of general relativity. We start with the Elevator Thought Experiment, and show how it represents a gravitational field and how it predicts the bending of light. This sets the stage for the Equivalence Principle. This leads to the reconciliation of Newton’s two definitions for mass. Which, in turn, leads to the idea that the existence of a mass bends space. To understand the bending of space, we cover the basics of Euclidian and non-Euclidian Riemann geometry. We include spherical and hyperbolic geometries along with the nature of their respective geodesics. We actually measure geodesic deviation above the Earth. For a fuller understanding, we cover the definition of metrics and curvature in terms of tensors. With the general Riemannian Curvature Tensor in hand, we find the subsets that reflect the behavior of space within a volume. We then cover how Einstein mapped this geometry to space-time to produce the Einstein Curvature Tensor. And finally, we describe the Energy-Momentum tensor that identifies the nature of a volume of matter-energy, which is the source of the space-time curvature. Setting these equal to each other with an appropriate conversion factor gives us Einstein’s general relativity field equations.

**2023-02-10**| Text - https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/02/General-Relativeity-I-Geometry.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

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In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover the geometry of general relativity. We start with the Elevator Thought Experiment, and show how it represents a gravitational field and how it predicts the bending of light. This sets the stage for the Equivalence Principle. This leads to the reconciliation of Newton’s two definitions for mass. Which, in turn, leads to the idea that the existence of a mass bends space. To understand the bending of space, we cover the basics of Euclidian and non-Euclidian Riemann geometry. We include spherical and hyperbolic geometries along with the nature of their respective geodesics. We actually measure geodesic deviation above the Earth. For a fuller understanding, we cover the definition of metrics and curvature in terms of tensors. With the general Riemannian Curvature Tensor in hand, we find the subsets that reflect the behavior of space within a volume. We then cover how Einstein mapped this geometry to space-time to produce the Einstein Curvature Tensor. And finally, we describe the Energy-Momentum tensor that identifies the nature of a volume of matter-energy, which is the source of the space-time curvature. Setting these equal to each other with an appropriate conversion factor gives us Einstein’s general relativity field equations.

**2023-02-08**| Text - https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/02/General-Relativeity-I-Geometry.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover the geometry of general relativity. We start with the Elevator Thought Experiment, and show how it represents a gravitational field and how it predicts the bending of light. This sets the stage for the Equivalence Principle. This leads to the reconciliation of Newton’s two definitions for mass. Which, in turn, leads to the idea that the existence of a mass bends space. To understand the bending of space, we cover the basics of Euclidian and non-Euclidian Riemann geometry. We include spherical and hyperbolic geometries along with the nature of their respective geodesics. We actually measure geodesic deviation above the Earth. For a fuller understanding, we cover the definition of metrics and curvature in terms of tensors. With the general Riemannian Curvature Tensor in hand, we find the subsets that reflect the behavior of space within a volume. We then cover how Einstein mapped this geometry to space-time to produce the Einstein Curvature Tensor. And finally, we describe the Energy-Momentum tensor that identifies the nature of a volume of matter-energy, which is the source of the space-time curvature. Setting these equal to each other with an appropriate conversion factor gives us Einstein’s general relativity field equations.

**2023-02-08**| Text - https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/02/General-Relativeity-I-Geometry.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover the geometry of general relativity. We start with the Elevator Thought Experiment, and show how it represents a gravitational field and how it predicts the bending of light. This sets the stage for the Equivalence Principle. This leads to the reconciliation of Newton’s two definitions for mass. Which, in turn, leads to the idea that the existence of a mass bends space. To understand the bending of space, we cover the basics of Euclidian and non-Euclidian Riemann geometry. We include spherical and hyperbolic geometries along with the nature of their respective geodesics. We actually measure geodesic deviation above the Earth. For a fuller understanding, we cover the definition of metrics and curvature in terms of tensors. With the general Riemannian Curvature Tensor in hand, we find the subsets that reflect the behavior of space within a volume. We then cover how Einstein mapped this geometry to space-time to produce the Einstein Curvature Tensor. And finally, we describe the Energy-Momentum tensor that identifies the nature of a volume of matter-energy, which is the source of the space-time curvature. Setting these equal to each other with an appropriate conversion factor gives us Einstein’s general relativity field equations.

**2023-02-08**| Text - https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/02/General-Relativeity-I-Geometry.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover the geometry of general relativity. We start with the Elevator Thought Experiment, and show how it represents a gravitational field and how it predicts the bending of light. This sets the stage for the Equivalence Principle. This leads to the reconciliation of Newton’s two definitions for mass. Which, in turn, leads to the idea that the existence of a mass bends space. To understand the bending of space, we cover the basics of Euclidian and non-Euclidian Riemann geometry. We include spherical and hyperbolic geometries along with the nature of their respective geodesics. We actually measure geodesic deviation above the Earth. For a fuller understanding, we cover the definition of metrics and curvature in terms of tensors. With the general Riemannian Curvature Tensor in hand, we find the subsets that reflect the behavior of space within a volume. We then cover how Einstein mapped this geometry to space-time to produce the Einstein Curvature Tensor. And finally, we describe the Energy-Momentum tensor that identifies the nature of a volume of matter-energy, which is the source of the space-time curvature. Setting these equal to each other with an appropriate conversion factor gives us Einstein’s general relativity field equations.

**2023-02-08**| Text - https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/02/General-Relativeity-I-Geometry.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover the geometry of general relativity. We start with the Elevator Thought Experiment, and show how it represents a gravitational field and how it predicts the bending of light. This sets the stage for the Equivalence Principle. This leads to the reconciliation of Newton’s two definitions for mass. Which, in turn, leads to the idea that the existence of a mass bends space. To understand the bending of space, we cover the basics of Euclidian and non-Euclidian Riemann geometry. We include spherical and hyperbolic geometries along with the nature of their respective geodesics. We actually measure geodesic deviation above the Earth. For a fuller understanding, we cover the definition of metrics and curvature in terms of tensors. With the general Riemannian Curvature Tensor in hand, we find the subsets that reflect the behavior of space within a volume. We then cover how Einstein mapped this geometry to space-time to produce the Einstein Curvature Tensor. And finally, we describe the Energy-Momentum tensor that identifies the nature of a volume of matter-energy, which is the source of the space-time curvature. Setting these equal to each other with an appropriate conversion factor gives us Einstein’s general relativity field equations.

**2023-02-08**| Text - https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/02/General-Relativeity-I-Geometry.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover the geometry of general relativity. We start with the Elevator Thought Experiment, and show how it represents a gravitational field and how it predicts the bending of light. This sets the stage for the Equivalence Principle. This leads to the reconciliation of Newton’s two definitions for mass. Which, in turn, leads to the idea that the existence of a mass bends space. To understand the bending of space, we cover the basics of Euclidian and non-Euclidian Riemann geometry. We include spherical and hyperbolic geometries along with the nature of their respective geodesics. We actually measure geodesic deviation above the Earth. For a fuller understanding, we cover the definition of metrics and curvature in terms of tensors. With the general Riemannian Curvature Tensor in hand, we find the subsets that reflect the behavior of space within a volume. We then cover how Einstein mapped this geometry to space-time to produce the Einstein Curvature Tensor. And finally, we describe the Energy-Momentum tensor that identifies the nature of a volume of matter-energy, which is the source of the space-time curvature. Setting these equal to each other with an appropriate conversion factor gives us Einstein’s general relativity field equations.

**2023-02-08**| Text - https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/02/General-Relativeity-I-Geometry.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover the geometry of general relativity. We start with the Elevator Thought Experiment, and show how it represents a gravitational field and how it predicts the bending of light. This sets the stage for the Equivalence Principle. This leads to the reconciliation of Newton’s two definitions for mass. Which, in turn, leads to the idea that the existence of a mass bends space. To understand the bending of space, we cover the basics of Euclidian and non-Euclidian Riemann geometry. We include spherical and hyperbolic geometries along with the nature of their respective geodesics. We actually measure geodesic deviation above the Earth. For a fuller understanding, we cover the definition of metrics and curvature in terms of tensors. With the general Riemannian Curvature Tensor in hand, we find the subsets that reflect the behavior of space within a volume. We then cover how Einstein mapped this geometry to space-time to produce the Einstein Curvature Tensor. And finally, we describe the Energy-Momentum tensor that identifies the nature of a volume of matter-energy, which is the source of the space-time curvature. Setting these equal to each other with an appropriate conversion factor gives us Einstein’s general relativity field equations.

**2023-02-07**| Text - https://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/02/General-Relativeity-I-Geometry.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book, we cover the geometry of general relativity. We start with the Elevator Thought Experiment, and show how it represents a gravitational field and how it predicts the bending of light. This sets the stage for the Equivalence Principle. This leads to the reconciliation of Newton’s two definitions for mass. Which, in turn, leads to the idea that the existence of a mass bends space. To understand the bending of space, we cover the basics of Euclidian and non-Euclidian Riemann geometry. We include spherical and hyperbolic geometries along with the nature of their respective geodesics. We actually measure geodesic deviation above the Earth. For a fuller understanding, we cover the definition of metrics and curvature in terms of tensors. With the general Riemannian Curvature Tensor in hand, we find the subsets that reflect the behavior of space within a volume. We then cover how Einstein mapped this geometry to space-time to produce the Einstein Curvature Tensor. And finally, we describe the Energy-Momentum tensor that identifies the nature of a volume of matter-energy, which is the source of the space-time curvature. Setting these equal to each other with an appropriate conversion factor gives us Einstein’s general relativity field equations.

**2023-01-09**| Text - http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/01/2022-Review-Hubble-and-James-Webb.pdf

Music Free Version - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zBuRyfvee_o&list=PLpH1IDQEoE8Q7DpBhgeobBhFageDihKqj

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

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In 2022, we finally saw the James Webb Space Telescope move into operational mode. Its early images and spectrometry are amazing. In this review, I have included a large number of them. It was also a very good year for the Hubble Space Telescope, and we have a number of those as well. We’ll take our usual approach and start close to home and move out to the most distant objects ever studied. We have a new image of Earth. We crashed a satellite into an asteroid to change its orbit. Webb took a look at Mars, Jupiter and Neptune. We’ll see a protostar; supernova; cosmic cliffs; pillars of creation; galaxy groups and more. We’ll finish with a pair of overlapping galaxies that enable a deep study of interstellar dust. We’ll end with the credits and links to the document with the text and pictures for this 2022 Review.

**2023-01-04**| Text - http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/01/2022-Review-Hubble-and-James-Webb.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In 2022, we finally saw the James Webb Space Telescope move into operational mode. Its early images and spectrometry are amazing. In this review, I have included a large number of them. It was also a very good year for the Hubble Space Telescope, and we have a number of those as well. We’ll take our usual approach and start close to home and move out to the most distant objects ever studied. We have a new image of Earth. We crashed a satellite into an asteroid to change its orbit. Webb took a look at Mars, Jupiter and Neptune. We’ll see a protostar; supernova; cosmic cliffs; pillars of creation; galaxy groups and more. We’ll finish with a pair of overlapping galaxies that enable a deep study of interstellar dust. We’ll end with the credits and links to the document with the text and pictures for this 2022 Review.

**2023-01-04**| Text - http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/01/2022-Review-Hubble-and-James-Webb.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In 2022, we finally saw the James Webb Space Telescope move into operational mode. Its early images and spectrometry are amazing. In this review, I have included a large number of them. It was also a very good year for the Hubble Space Telescope, and we have a number of those as well. We’ll take our usual approach and start close to home and move out to the most distant objects ever studied. We have a new image of Earth. We crashed a satellite into an asteroid to change its orbit. Webb took a look at Mars, Jupiter and Neptune. We’ll see a protostar; supernova; cosmic cliffs; pillars of creation; galaxy groups and more. We’ll finish with a pair of overlapping galaxies that enable a deep study of interstellar dust. We’ll end with the credits and links to the document with the text and pictures for this 2022 Review.

**2023-01-04**| Text - http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/01/2022-Review-Hubble-and-James-Webb.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In 2022, we finally saw the James Webb Space Telescope move into operational mode. Its early images and spectrometry are amazing. In this review, I have included a large number of them. It was also a very good year for the Hubble Space Telescope, and we have a number of those as well. We’ll take our usual approach and start close to home and move out to the most distant objects ever studied. We have a new image of Earth. We crashed a satellite into an asteroid to change its orbit. Webb took a look at Mars, Jupiter and Neptune. We’ll see a protostar; supernova; cosmic cliffs; pillars of creation; galaxy groups and more. We’ll finish with a pair of overlapping galaxies that enable a deep study of interstellar dust. We’ll end with the credits and links to the document with the text and pictures for this 2022 Review.

**2023-01-04**| Text - http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/01/2022-Review-Hubble-and-James-Webb.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In 2022, we finally saw the James Webb Space Telescope move into operational mode. Its early images and spectrometry are amazing. In this review, I have included a large number of them. It was also a very good year for the Hubble Space Telescope, and we have a number of those as well. We’ll take our usual approach and start close to home and move out to the most distant objects ever studied. We have a new image of Earth. We crashed a satellite into an asteroid to change its orbit. Webb took a look at Mars, Jupiter and Neptune. We’ll see a protostar; supernova; cosmic cliffs; pillars of creation; galaxy groups and more. We’ll finish with a pair of overlapping galaxies that enable a deep study of interstellar dust. We’ll end with the credits and links to the document with the text and pictures for this 2022 Review.

**2023-01-04**| Text - http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/01/2022-Review-Hubble-and-James-Webb.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In 2022, we finally saw the James Webb Space Telescope move into operational mode. Its early images and spectrometry are amazing. In this review, I have included a large number of them. It was also a very good year for the Hubble Space Telescope, and we have a number of those as well. We’ll take our usual approach and start close to home and move out to the most distant objects ever studied. We have a new image of Earth. We crashed a satellite into an asteroid to change its orbit. Webb took a look at Mars, Jupiter and Neptune. We’ll see a protostar; supernova; cosmic cliffs; pillars of creation; galaxy groups and more. We’ll finish with a pair of overlapping galaxies that enable a deep study of interstellar dust. We’ll end with the credits and links to the document with the text and pictures for this 2022 Review.

**2023-01-04**| Text - http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/01/2022-Review-Hubble-and-James-Webb.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In 2022, we finally saw the James Webb Space Telescope move into operational mode. Its early images and spectrometry are amazing. In this review, I have included a large number of them. It was also a very good year for the Hubble Space Telescope, and we have a number of those as well. We’ll take our usual approach and start close to home and move out to the most distant objects ever studied. We have a new image of Earth. We crashed a satellite into an asteroid to change its orbit. Webb took a look at Mars, Jupiter and Neptune. We’ll see a protostar; supernova; cosmic cliffs; pillars of creation; galaxy groups and more. We’ll finish with a pair of overlapping galaxies that enable a deep study of interstellar dust. We’ll end with the credits and links to the document with the text and pictures for this 2022 Review.

**2023-01-04**| Text - http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/01/2022-Review-Hubble-and-James-Webb.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In 2022, we finally saw the James Webb Space Telescope move into operational mode. Its early images and spectrometry are amazing. In this review, I have included a large number of them. It was also a very good year for the Hubble Space Telescope, and we have a number of those as well. We’ll take our usual approach and start close to home and move out to the most distant objects ever studied. We have a new image of Earth. We crashed a satellite into an asteroid to change its orbit. Webb took a look at Mars, Jupiter and Neptune. We’ll see a protostar; supernova; cosmic cliffs; pillars of creation; galaxy groups and more. We’ll finish with a pair of overlapping galaxies that enable a deep study of interstellar dust. We’ll end with the credits and links to the document with the text and pictures for this 2022 Review.

**2023-01-04**| Text - http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/01/2022-Review-Hubble-and-James-Webb.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In 2022, we finally saw the James Webb Space Telescope move into operational mode. Its early images and spectrometry are amazing. In this review, I have included a large number of them. It was also a very good year for the Hubble Space Telescope, and we have a number of those as well. We’ll take our usual approach and start close to home and move out to the most distant objects ever studied. We have a new image of Earth. We crashed a satellite into an asteroid to change its orbit. Webb took a look at Mars, Jupiter and Neptune. We’ll see a protostar; supernova; cosmic cliffs; pillars of creation; galaxy groups and more. We’ll finish with a pair of overlapping galaxies that enable a deep study of interstellar dust. We’ll end with the credits and links to the document with the text and pictures for this 2022 Review.

**2023-01-04**| Text - http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/01/2022-Review-Hubble-and-James-Webb.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In 2022, we finally saw the James Webb Space Telescope move into operational mode. Its early images and spectrometry are amazing. In this review, I have included a large number of them. It was also a very good year for the Hubble Space Telescope, and we have a number of those as well. We’ll take our usual approach and start close to home and move out to the most distant objects ever studied. We have a new image of Earth. We crashed a satellite into an asteroid to change its orbit. Webb took a look at Mars, Jupiter and Neptune. We’ll see a protostar; supernova; cosmic cliffs; pillars of creation; galaxy groups and more. We’ll finish with a pair of overlapping galaxies that enable a deep study of interstellar dust. We’ll end with the credits and links to the document with the text and pictures for this 2022 Review.

**2023-01-04**| Text - http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/01/2022-Review-Hubble-and-James-Webb.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In 2022, we finally saw the James Webb Space Telescope move into operational mode. Its early images and spectrometry are amazing. In this review, I have included a large number of them. It was also a very good year for the Hubble Space Telescope, and we have a number of those as well. We’ll take our usual approach and start close to home and move out to the most distant objects ever studied. We have a new image of Earth. We crashed a satellite into an asteroid to change its orbit. Webb took a look at Mars, Jupiter and Neptune. We’ll see a protostar; supernova; cosmic cliffs; pillars of creation; galaxy groups and more. We’ll finish with a pair of overlapping galaxies that enable a deep study of interstellar dust. We’ll end with the credits and links to the document with the text and pictures for this 2022 Review.

**2023-01-04**| Text - http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/01/2022-Review-Hubble-and-James-Webb.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In 2022, we finally saw the James Webb Space Telescope move into operational mode. Its early images and spectrometry are amazing. In this review, I have included a large number of them. It was also a very good year for the Hubble Space Telescope, and we have a number of those as well. We’ll take our usual approach and start close to home and move out to the most distant objects ever studied. We have a new image of Earth. We crashed a satellite into an asteroid to change its orbit. Webb took a look at Mars, Jupiter and Neptune. We’ll see a protostar; supernova; cosmic cliffs; pillars of creation; galaxy groups and more. We’ll finish with a pair of overlapping galaxies that enable a deep study of interstellar dust. We’ll end with the credits and links to the document with the text and pictures for this 2022 Review.

**2023-01-04**| Text - http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/01/2022-Review-Hubble-and-James-Webb.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In 2022, we finally saw the James Webb Space Telescope move into operational mode. Its early images and spectrometry are amazing. In this review, I have included a large number of them. It was also a very good year for the Hubble Space Telescope, and we have a number of those as well. We’ll take our usual approach and start close to home and move out to the most distant objects ever studied. We have a new image of Earth. We crashed a satellite into an asteroid to change its orbit. Webb took a look at Mars, Jupiter and Neptune. We’ll see a protostar; supernova; cosmic cliffs; pillars of creation; galaxy groups and more. We’ll finish with a pair of overlapping galaxies that enable a deep study of interstellar dust. We’ll end with the credits and links to the document with the text and pictures for this 2022 Review.

**2023-01-04**| Text - http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/01/2022-Review-Hubble-and-James-Webb.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In 2022, we finally saw the James Webb Space Telescope move into operational mode. Its early images and spectrometry are amazing. In this review, I have included a large number of them. It was also a very good year for the Hubble Space Telescope, and we have a number of those as well. We’ll take our usual approach and start close to home and move out to the most distant objects ever studied. We have a new image of Earth. We crashed a satellite into an asteroid to change its orbit. Webb took a look at Mars, Jupiter and Neptune. We’ll see a protostar; supernova; cosmic cliffs; pillars of creation; galaxy groups and more. We’ll finish with a pair of overlapping galaxies that enable a deep study of interstellar dust. We’ll end with the credits and links to the document with the text and pictures for this 2022 Review.

**2023-01-04**| Text - http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/01/2022-Review-Hubble-and-James-Webb.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In 2022, we finally saw the James Webb Space Telescope move into operational mode. Its early images and spectrometry are amazing. In this review, I have included a large number of them. It was also a very good year for the Hubble Space Telescope, and we have a number of those as well. We’ll take our usual approach and start close to home and move out to the most distant objects ever studied. We have a new image of Earth. We crashed a satellite into an asteroid to change its orbit. Webb took a look at Mars, Jupiter and Neptune. We’ll see a protostar; supernova; cosmic cliffs; pillars of creation; galaxy groups and more. We’ll finish with a pair of overlapping galaxies that enable a deep study of interstellar dust. We’ll end with the credits and links to the document with the text and pictures for this 2022 Review.

**2023-01-04**| Text - http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/01/2022-Review-Hubble-and-James-Webb.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In 2022, we finally saw the James Webb Space Telescope move into operational mode. Its early images and spectrometry are amazing. In this review, I have included a large number of them. It was also a very good year for the Hubble Space Telescope, and we have a number of those as well. We’ll take our usual approach and start close to home and move out to the most distant objects ever studied. We have a new image of Earth. We crashed a satellite into an asteroid to change its orbit. Webb took a look at Mars, Jupiter and Neptune. We’ll see a protostar; supernova; cosmic cliffs; pillars of creation; galaxy groups and more. We’ll finish with a pair of overlapping galaxies that enable a deep study of interstellar dust. We’ll end with the credits and links to the document with the text and pictures for this 2022 Review.

**2022-12-06**| Text - http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/11/Special-Relativity-2022.pdf

Credits http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Credits-and-Research.pdf

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In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book we cover the Special Theory of Relativity. We start with the Lorentz Transformations developed after the Michelson-Morley experiment showed that the speed of light was the same for all inertial observers. We then use light clocks to illustrate some of the most striking implications of these new transformations - starting with time dilation and space contraction. As we work through the special relativity effects, we review the physical evidence such as GPS satellites for time dilation and cosmic ray muons for space contraction. We then cover how we add velocities in such a way as to always come up with a number less than or equal to the speed of light. We then use the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to illustrate mass-energy momentum increasing without bound as speeds approach the speed of light. The last special relativity effect that we cover is the moving of simultaneity to the realm of the relative.

With this done, we cover Albert Einstein’s motivation for his two Special Theory of Relativity postulates. One was driven by Maxwell’s equations and the other was driven by the inability to detect the Aether. We then cover the geometry of space-time called Minkowski Space. We close with a description of the famous Twin Paradox. For that we use a 50-year trip to Vega and back.

Music

@01:35 Felix Mendelssohn - Concerto for Piano, Violin and String Orchestra: Bulgarian Symphony Orchestra; from the album “50 Must-Have Adagios Masterpieces” 2013

@08:34 Antonin Dvorák- Serenade for Strings, tempo di valse: Berliner Philharmoniker; from the album “Tchaikovsky and Dvorak String Serenades” 1982

@14:51 Edward Elgar - Cello Concerto: London Symphony Orchestra; from the album “Essential Adagios” 2010

@20:44 Mozart - Eine Kleine Nachtmusik Romanze: New Symphony Orchestra; from the album “60 Classical Tracks”

@24:38 Beethoven - Fur Elise: New Symphony Orchestra; from the album “60 Classical Tracks”

**2022-11-30**| Text - http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/11/Special-Relativity-2022.pdf

Credits http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Credits-and-Research.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

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https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book we cover the Special Theory of Relativity. We start with the Lorentz Transformations developed after the Michelson-Morley experiment showed that the speed of light was the same for all inertial observers. We then use light clocks to illustrate some of the most striking implications of these new transformations - starting with time dilation and space contraction. As we work through the special relativity effects, we review the physical evidence such as GPS satellites for time dilation and cosmic ray muons for space contraction. We then cover how we add velocities in such a way as to always come up with a number less than or equal to the speed of light. We then use the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to illustrate mass-energy momentum increasing without bound as speeds approach the speed of light. The last special relativity effect that we cover is the moving of simultaneity to the realm of the relative.

With this done, we cover Albert Einstein’s motivation for his two Special Theory of Relativity postulates. One was driven by Maxwell’s equations and the other was driven by the inability to detect the Aether. We then cover the geometry of space-time called Minkowski Space. We close with a description of the famous Twin Paradox. For that we use a 50-year trip to Vega and back.

**2022-11-30**| Text - http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/11/Special-Relativity-2022.pdf

Credits http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Credits-and-Research.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book we cover the Special Theory of Relativity. We start with the Lorentz Transformations developed after the Michelson-Morley experiment showed that the speed of light was the same for all inertial observers. We then use light clocks to illustrate some of the most striking implications of these new transformations - starting with time dilation and space contraction. As we work through the special relativity effects, we review the physical evidence such as GPS satellites for time dilation and cosmic ray muons for space contraction. We then cover how we add velocities in such a way as to always come up with a number less than or equal to the speed of light. We then use the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to illustrate mass-energy momentum increasing without bound as speeds approach the speed of light. The last special relativity effect that we cover is the moving of simultaneity to the realm of the relative.

With this done, we cover Albert Einstein’s motivation for his two Special Theory of Relativity postulates. One was driven by Maxwell’s equations and the other was driven by the inability to detect the Aether. We then cover the geometry of space-time called Minkowski Space. We close with a description of the famous Twin Paradox. For that we use a 50-year trip to Vega and back.

**2022-11-30**| Text - http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/11/Special-Relativity-2022.pdf

Credits http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Credits-and-Research.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book we cover the Special Theory of Relativity. We start with the Lorentz Transformations developed after the Michelson-Morley experiment showed that the speed of light was the same for all inertial observers. We then use light clocks to illustrate some of the most striking implications of these new transformations - starting with time dilation and space contraction. As we work through the special relativity effects, we review the physical evidence such as GPS satellites for time dilation and cosmic ray muons for space contraction. We then cover how we add velocities in such a way as to always come up with a number less than or equal to the speed of light. We then use the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to illustrate mass-energy momentum increasing without bound as speeds approach the speed of light. The last special relativity effect that we cover is the moving of simultaneity to the realm of the relative.

With this done, we cover Albert Einstein’s motivation for his two Special Theory of Relativity postulates. One was driven by Maxwell’s equations and the other was driven by the inability to detect the Aether. We then cover the geometry of space-time called Minkowski Space. We close with a description of the famous Twin Paradox. For that we use a 50-year trip to Vega and back.

**2022-11-30**| Text - http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/11/Special-Relativity-2022.pdf

Credits http://howfarawayisit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Credits-and-Research.pdf

website - https://howfarawayisit.com

Wiki page

https://howfarawayisit.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopedia_Howfarawayica

In this segment of the “How Fast Is It” video book we cover the Special Theory of Relativity. We start with the Lorentz Transformations developed after the Michelson-Morley experiment showed that the speed of light was the same for all inertial observers. We then use light clocks to illustrate some of the most striking implications of these new transformations - starting with time dilation and space contraction. As we work through the special relativity effects, we review the physical evidence such as GPS satellites for time dilation and cosmic ray muons for space contraction. We then cover how we add velocities in such a way as to always come up with a number less than or equal to the speed of light. We then use the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to illustrate mass-energy momentum increasing without bound as speeds approach the speed of light. The last special relativity effect that we cover is the moving of simultaneity to the realm of the relative.

With this done, we cover Albert Einstein’s motivation for his two Special Theory of Relativity postulates. One was driven by Maxwell’s equations and the other was driven by the inability to detect the Aether. We then cover the geometry of space-time called Minkowski Space. We close with a description of the famous Twin Paradox. For that we use a 50-year trip to Vega and back.